Occlusive dressings can control the environment around the wound, effectively block the impact of pathogens (bacteria, fungi) on the wound surface, effectively prevent further damage, and provide the moist healing environment required for wound healing. Given the very specific use of occlusive dressings, their use should be thoroughly analyzed according to the patient's condition and the indications and contraindications for basic wound dressings. When using occlusive dressings, health care professionals and family caregivers need to regularly check the skin and dressing to avoid potential complications.
I. The mechanism of action of closed wound dressing
1. The closed wound dressing can create the moist environment required for wound healing and promote cell migration
Compared with the dry wound healing concept of closed basic wound dressing, no scab will appear during the wound healing process in a wet environment, and the wound healing time can be shortened. The closed wet environment is conducive to cell dissociation and division, and can promote the release of growth factors, promote the division and proliferation of epithelial cells, and effectively promote the rapid healing of wounds.
2. It can activate the wound to start autolytic debridement
Sealed basic wound dressing like silicone foam dressing 4x4 contains a variety of enzymes and activating factors in the wound exudate in a closed moist environment. Among them, the role of protease and urokinase is relatively large. These two enzymes can effectively promote the dissolution of proteases and necrotic tissue, and at the same time activate the activity of growth factors, stimulate their biological effects, promote epithelial cell crawling and accelerate wound healing.
3. In a closed and humid environment, the incidence of wound infection can be reduced
One might think that a closed wet environment is conducive to bacterial reproduction and growth. However, studies have shown that in a closed environment, due to the effect of low oxygen and low pH value, polynucleated leukocytes can play a more effective role and can inhibit the reproduction and growth of bacteria. Therefore, the wound infection rate of basic wound dressing did not increase in the closed wet environment.
4. Create an oxygen-free, slightly acidic environment
In a closed humid environment, a hypoxic environment will be formed, and bacteria grow slowly under low oxygen content. In addition, the hypoxic environment can promote the synthesis of fibroblasts and stimulate the proliferation of blood vessels. Studies have shown that the closed wound dressing promotes the formation of capillaries faster, and the blood perfusion of the wound surface is significantly increased.
II. Design and application of closed wound dressing
Occlusive wound dressings come in a variety of shapes and formulations, and while some common occlusive wound dressings are available at regular medical stores, high-quality occlusive wound dressings can only be achieved by ordering from a medical supply catalog. Occlusive wound dressings are usually sheet-like, and can be cut according to the size of the wound when used.
Medical occlusive basic wound dressings are available for purchase and can be made into dressings containing antibiotic ointments or steroids. Appropriately sized bandages can be made, and when applied to the wound surface, medical tape can be used to stick around to achieve a complete seal. Just like wound dressing, occlusive bandages must be checked regularly and changed if necessary to avoid infection.