What is the Role of Foam Dressing in Pressure Ulcers?

The pressure ulcer we often hear is the case of local tissue ulceration and ischemic necrosis due to the persistent ischemia, hypoxia, malnutrition caused by the long-time pressure of local tissue. Pressure ulcers are also called decubitus and pressure sores. So what is the role of silicone wound dressing in pressure ulcers?


Ⅰ. The role of foam dressing in pressure ulcers


In the pathogenesis of pressure ulcers, the pressure and time of compression are directly related to it, others are related to humidity, temperature, skin and nutritional status. The main risk factors for pressure ulcers are vertical pressure, shear, lower limb fracture, malnutrition, moist skin, and the using of medical instruments such as trachea cannula.


The current situation of pressure ulcers in the operating room: According to the survey by AORN, the result shows: Pressure ulcers caused by posture rank fourth in the operating room safety hazards; The incidence of pressure ulcers in major surgery patients has exceeded that in elderly patients due to the inability to relieve local pressure by changing the position during surgery; The incidence of pressure ulcers in surgical patients has reached 4.7%-66%, pressure ulcers often occur during the operation but usually appear after the operation, so nurses need to check this in 48 to 72 hours after surgery. Pressure ulcers are mainly manifested as skin redness, ulceration, and with blisters and pain in the compression zone. After the appearance of pressure ulcers, the main treatment methods are adjusting position properly, using cushion shock tools, cleaning the wound, controlling pain and supporting nutrition, etc.


But according to its occurrence mechanism and occasion, the most effective way is still focused on prevention; Targeted methods in the prevention of pressure ulcers are as follows: Shorten the operating time to reduce the interference of time factor; Place the position properly and use cushion shock tools to reduce pressure. The tools commonly used in placing positions and reducing pressure are Oakland pads with posture line (the main function is to place the body position, increase the doctor's surgical field of vision to achieve the purpose of reducing the operating time, and also can reduce pressure), and another one we often heard of is foam dressing like silicone adhesive foam dressing.


Ⅱ. The components of conventional foam dressing


1. The first layer is the surface protective film, it generally adopts PU semi-permeable membrane, with water and bacteria resistance, air permeability, and smooth surface, which can reduce and avoid friction during the surgery.



2. The second layer is SAF locking liquid layer, it's usually made of super absorbent polymer, non-woven fabric is one of it, which has a strong water and liquid locking effect.



3. The third layer is foam absorbing layer, it's made of foam generally, mainly used for absorbing residual liquid and water, with very strong absorption.



4. The fourth layer is skin-friendly layer, which is generally made of materials that contact with the skin directly, including soft silicone (silica gel), medical pressure-sensitive adhesives, acrylic adhesive and other materials, among them, silicone is the most common one, the material is mild and low-sensitive. Silicone wound dressings are self-adhesive and can be adhered repeatedly.


5. The fifth layer is release film protective layer, generally it uses PE membrane after fluorine plastic treatment, which is easy to contact with and separate from the skin-friendly layer.

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