Wound dressing is a dressing used to cover sores, wounds or other damage. Today, the new wound care dressings have undergone revolutionary changes compared to the early days, and a variety of dressings with different properties are available for clinical caregivers to choose. In general, the evolution of dressings is from the earliest passive dressings, to interactive dressings, and then to today's bioactive dressings.
Ⅰ. Types of wound dressings
1. Passive dressings (traditional dressings)
Passively cover the wound and absorb exudates, providing limited protection to the wound.
2. Interactive dressings
There are various forms of interaction between the wound dressing and the wound surface, such as absorbing exudates and toxic substances, allowing gas exchange, thereby creating an ideal environment for healing; the barrier outer structure prevents the invasion of microorganisms in the environment, preventing wound cross infection, etc.
3. Bioactive dressings (occlusive dressings)
This type of dressing is also known as an occlusive dressing because it can prevent the wound from drying out. The dressing is a combined dressing made of polymer materials and biological materials processed by high-tech methods, which is a hot spot in the development and research of wound dressings. The biosynthetic dressing has a double-layer structure, and the outer layer is made of polymer material, which provides a barrier function equivalent to the epidermis. The main materials selected for the inner layer are collagen, chitosan wound dressing and calcium alginate, which have biocompatibility, good water absorption, air permeability, adhesion, antibacterial and hemostatic effects. It can not only absorb wound exudate to ensure adequate drainage, but also retain part of the exudate in the dressing to maintain a local moist environment imitating the physiological healing of the wound, which is conducive to the regeneration of wound granulation tissue and epithelial cells, and accelerates wound healing. Some substances that are beneficial to wound healing, such as drugs, cytokines, growth factors, etc., can also be added to the synthetic dressing to form various dressings such as drug dressings, cytokine dressings, and growth factor dressings.
Ⅱ. Precautions when choosing wound dressing
1. According to the assessment of the individual condition of the patient
The physical, psychological and economic acceptance of wound dressing is also very important for patients. Different patients have different physiques and different degrees of sensitivity to dressings, and some dressings may cause skin allergies in some patients. Certain patients are unacceptable to dressings with strong odors, such as hydrocolloids and alginates. If patients have higher requirements for quality of life, the comfort and ease of use of dressings have become important reference factors for dressing selection. Wound dressings are essential home medical supplies, newer dressings are relatively expensive, but good dressings can reduce the number of changes. Ultimately the dressing should be used according to the patient's request.
2. Choose dressings based on wound assessment
For primary healing wounds, gauze and film should be used. Thin films should be used for superficial wounds. Hydrogel for wounds with little to moderate oozing. Alginates should be used for moderately to severely exuding wounds. Dry necrotic wounds should use hydrogels and hydrocolloids.
3. Dynamic evaluation during use
Because wound conditions are constantly changing, wound assessments must be performed at regular intervals. According to the process of wound healing or the degree of deterioration, it is always necessary to evaluate whether the most appropriate wound dressing has been selected and whether the dressing is used correctly.
It is difficult to say which dressing will be the most suitable for wounds, and even if a certain dressing has been proven effective for such wounds, it may not be suitable for all patients. Therefore, it is the most reasonable to choose the dressing according to individual conditions, dynamically select the dressing, and apply it in combination, and choose the safest, most effective, simple to use, and high cost-effective dressing. There are many products to choose from, and new products are constantly being launched. The wound condition should be accurately assessed, and an economical, simple, and practical wound cover should be selected to promote wound healing. Of course, the criteria for an ideal dressing are relative. With the development and progress of society, human beings will have higher and higher requirements for wound dressing.